Download PDF


Seeking a career opportunity in public service to ensure the safety and efficacy of medical devices by providing professional support in mechanical, material, and bio-engineering.


Dec 2012Present

Scientist II

DoD Biotechnology High Performance Computing Software Application Institute, US Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (BHSAI/USAMRMC), Frederick, MD

Developed computational models for orthopedic tissue engineering applications. Accomplishments include:

  • Quantified the impacts of overuse-injury risk factors on bone biomechanics by combining musculoskeletal analysis with mechanical stress modeling.
    • Predicts subject-specific and activity-dependent stresses and strains in the human bones.
    • Applications include evaluation of the human-environment interaction, design of personalized orthopedic implants, and development of customized training regimes.
  • Evaluated anatomical variability within a group based on statistical shape analysis.
    • Applications include probabilistic modeling, which provides information on the variance in biomechanical responses due to morphological differences.
  • Obtained a five-million dollar research grant (W81XSH-13-MOMJPC5-IPPEHA) from the Department of the Army
    •  Studying the effects of military training on bone microstructure using high-resolution imaging and computational modeling.
  • Collaborated with scientists from institutions including United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Harvard University, University of North Carolina, and United States Military Academy.
Jan 2007Mar 2012

NIH-NRSA Postdoctoral Research Fellow (F32 HL099172), American Heart Association (AHA) Research Fellow

Gorman Cardiovascular Research Group, Surgery Department, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA

Created numerical models to characterize the mechanical basis of cardiac and cardiovascular diseases. Accomplishments include:

  • Developed algorithms to quantify regional myocardial functions in the context of ventricular remodeling secondary to myocardial infarction based on MR images.
  • Evaluated pre-clinical treatments including novel ventricular constraint devices, hydrogel injection, and stem cell therapies in animal models.
  • Developed computational models based on 3-D echocardiographic images of mitral valves with regurgitation and/or status post mitral valve repair. Defined and evaluated clinical performance metrics.
  • Mentored junior research fellows.
Sep 2000Dec 2006

Graduate Teaching/Research Assistant

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA

Developed computational methods for quantifying the complex fluid dynamics in the human vascular and respiratory system. Accomplishments include:

  • Developed 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models to quantify platelet margination phenomena.
  • Utilized CAD/CAM techniques in tissue engineering to develop a patient-specific femur implant.
  • Described the pathogenesis of obstructive sleep apnea by studying flow patterns in the human airway using 3-D patient-specific CFD models
  • Supervised a senior design group to perform in vitro experiments to validate CFD models.
Sep 1998Jun 2000

R&D Engineer

Beijing Institute of Petrochemical Group, Beijing, China
  • Implemented and maintained ventilation and air-conditioning based on HACCP regulations.


What is the biomechanical impact of exercise?

From human motions (Left), we can calculate the muscle and joint reaction forces (Middle), and predict spatiotemporal stress distributions in the bone (Right) under various exercises conditions.

Xu C. et al., Journal of biomechanical engineering 2016, 138(10).

How does infarct alter the left ventricular contractile functions?

From novel MR images (Left), we can visualize and quantify the altered cardiac dynamics due to infarction (Middle); or examine local contractile functions at any location (Right).

Xu C. et al., J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2010, 12(1):19-25.

How does abnormal upper airway lead to breathing challenges

From medical images (Left), we can better understand the increased breathing demands in terms of disrupted flow (Middle) and increased pressure drop (Right) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

Xu, C., et al.., 2006. J biomech 39, 2043-54


velocimetry, LabVIEW, gait analysis, flow pumps, prototyping
Mathematical Tool
Fluid-Solid Interaction Modeling
Medical imaging processing
IDL, Matlab
ABAQUS, ANSYS, FLUENT, GAMBIT, Tgrid, Pro/E, Solidworks, Geomagics, Hyperworks, AutoCAD
Musculoskeletal Modeling
AnyBody, Visual 3D


  • Xu C, Silder A, Zhang J, Reifman J, Unnikrishnan G., "Effects of load carriage on running characteristics and tibial mechanical stress: Implications for stress-fracture injuries," BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, Under review, 2016

  • Xu C, Silder A, Zhang J, Hughes J, Unnikrishnan G, Reifman J, Rakesh V., "An integrated musculoskeletal-finite-element model to evaluate effects of load carriage on the tibia during walking," Journal of Biomechanical Engineering 2016, 138(10).

  • Koomalsingh KJ, Witschey WR, McGarvey JR, Shuto T, Kondo N, Xu C, Jackson BM, Gorman JH, 3rd, Gorman RC, Pilla JJ., “Optimized local infarct restraint improves left ventricular function and limits remodeling,” Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 2013, 95(1):155-62

  • Eric S, Xu C, Nathan D, Fairman R, Gorman RC, Gorman JH 3rd, Vigmostad S, Jackson B, “Wall thickness influence on computational wall stress of arteries,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, 2012, PS206

  • Rovno HD, Xu C, Pilla JJ, Dougherty Lawrence, McGarvey JR, Gorman RC, Gorman JH 3rd, Koomalsingh K, Litt H, “Right ventricular strain imaging using 3D SPAMM combined with optical flow tracking,” J Cardiovasc Magn Reson, 2012; 14(Suppl 1): W54

  • Xu C, Jassar AS, Nathan DP, Eperjesi TJ, Brinster CJ, Levack MM, Vergnat M, Gorman RC, Gorman JH 3rd, Jackson BM, “Augmented mitral valve leaflet area decreases leaflet stress: a finite element simulation,” Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 2012, 93(4):1141-5

  • Pouch AM,  Xu C,  Yushkevich PA, Jassar AS, Vergnat M, Gorman JH 3rd, Gorman RC, Sehgal CM, Jackson BM, “Semi-automated mitral valve morphometry and computational stress analysis using 3D ultrasound,” Journal of Biomechanics, 2012; 45: 903-7

  • Nathan DP, Xu C, Pouch AM, Chandran KB, Desjardins B, Gorman JH 3rd, Fairman RM, Gorman RC, Jackson BM, “Increased wall stress of saccular versus fusiform aneurysms of the descending thoracic aorta,” Annals of Vascular Surgery 2011;25: 1129-37

  • Nathan DP, Xu C, Plappert T, Desjardins B, Gorman JH 3rd, Bavaria JE, Gorman RC, Chandran KB, Jackson BM, “Increased ascending aortic wall stress in patients with bicuspid aortic valves,” Annals of Thoracic Surgery 2011;92:1384-89

  • Wenk JF, Eslami P, Zhang Z, Xu C, Kuhl E, Gorman JH 3rd, Robb JD, Ratcliffe MB, Gorman RC, Guccione JM, “A novel method for quantifying the in-vivo mechanical effect of material injected into a myocardial infarction,” Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 2011(92):935-941

  • Nathan DP, Xu C, Gorman JH 3rd, Fairman RM, Bavaria JE, Gorman RC, Chandran KB, Jackson BM, “Pathogenesis of acute aortic dissection: a finite element stress analysis,” Annals of Thoracic Surgery, 2011 Feb;91(2):458-63

  • Xu C, Brinster CJ, Jassar AS, Vergnat M, Eperjesi TJ, Gorman RC, Gorman JH 3rd, Jackson BM, “A novel approach to in vivo mitral valve stress analysis,” American Journal of Physiology-Heart and Circulatory Physiology, 2010 December; 299(6):H1790-4

  • Xu C, Koomalsingh K, Issac G, Gorman RC, Gorman JH 3rd, Lawrence Dougherty, James JP, “Orientation and magnitude of left ventricular principal strains as indicator of infarct expansion,” Journal of Cardiac Failure, 2010 August; 16(8): S20-1

  • Nathan DP, Xu C, Fairman RM, et al., “Inhomogenous wall stress distribution in the normal human thoracic aorta: a potential etiology of type B aortic dissections,” Journal of Vascular Surgery, 2010 June; 51(6): S27-8

  • Xu C, Pilla JP, Isaac G, Gorman JH 3rdBlom AS, Gorman RC, Zhou Land Dougherty L, “Deformation analysis of 3D tagged cardiac images using an optical flow method,” Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance, 2010 March; 12:19

  • Xu C, Brennick MJ, Dougherty L, Wootton DM, “Modeling upper airway collapse by a finite element model with regional tissue properties,” Medical Engineering and Physics, 2009; 31(10):1343-48

  • Xu C, Sin S, McDonough JM, Udupa JK, Guez A, Arens R, Wootton DM, “Computational fluid dynamics modeling of the upper airway in a child with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in steady flow,” Journal of Biomechanics, 2006; 39 (11):2043-54

  • Xu C, Brennick MJ, Wootton DM, “Image-based three-dimensional finite element modeling approach for upper airway mechanics,” Conference Proceeding IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, 2005;3:2587-90

  • Xu C, Wootton DM, “Platelet near-wall excess in porcine whole blood in the arterial-sized tube under both steady and pulsatile flow conditions,” Biorheology, 2004; 41:113-125

  • Xu C, Wootton DM, “A model of platelet concentration sampling in arterial flow,” Conference Proceeding EMBS/BMES, 2002; 2:903-4