Chapter 2 Task 1: Arrange an Efficient Daily Schedule
This schedule reflects an 80 minute block and this is a high school level business class.
7:30 – 7:35 – Students will entering the classroom putting their homework in a designated place next to the teacher’s desk.
7:35 – 7:50 – Teacher-directed review of previous concepts discussed.
7:50 – 8:00 – Classroom will be open for questions concerning previously discussed material.
8:00 – 8:15 – Teacher-directed introduction of new material.
8:15 – 8:20 – Introduction of in-class assignment.
8:20 – 8:40 – Independent work or group tasks (depending on assignment). Teacher will write new homework assignment on the board.
8:40 – 8:50 – Ask the students to write down new assignment and have students clear up their stations and log off of their computers (if needed).
The students will come into class and set their assignments in a designated tray on the teachers’ desk. They will then continue to their seats and will have five minutes to log onto their computer and get all materials out and be ready for class to begin. The purpose that I chose to do tasks in fifteen to twenty minute intervals was to create a time-span that will give students enough time to complete a task, however, not a long amount of time to get bored. Vygotsky’s social-historical theory of cognitive development includes zone of proximal development. Zone of proximal development is defined as, “the range between what children can accomplish alone and what can be accomplished with assistance.” By allowing the students to have independent work and teacher directed review, the teacher is able to see what the students can do without assistance and what they need help with. Piaget’s cognitive development theory includes what is called schema. Schema is defined as, “any consistent, reliable pattern or plan of interaction with the environment.” I, as a teacher would keep consistency in the classroom by keeping a fairly regular schedule every day. There would not be a drastic change in daily activities, there would however, be different activities (Bigner & Grayson, 2010).
Chapter 2 Task 2: Create a Positive Physical Space
This floor plan creates an organized environment. There is enough room between the desks for the teacher to move freely around the room. There is a projector and T.V. in the front of the room so that the teacher is able to demonstrate certain tasks. There are plenty of shelves in the room so that the teacher can store books and manuals for the students. This classroom is more of a hands-on class; therefore, the books for the class would be used for more than one class. There is a sink in the back of the room so that people may wash their hands when needed. The teacher is facing the students and has a student desk next to the teachers’ desk so that any visitors or students teacher have a desk of their own. There will also be mirrors in the top back corners of the room so the teacher will have a visual of the computer when at the teachers’ desk. “One of the most effective behavior management strategies a teacher can implement is active supervision. Active supervision includes moving around the room, interacting with students, correcting errors, and providing positive feedback.” This classroom setting gives the teacher the ability to provide active supervision (Sprick, 2009). This classroom setting also connects to the behavioral theory. The behavioral theory includes something that is called operant conditioning. Operant conditioning is defined as, “the use of reinforces and punishers to control behavior.” By having the mirrors in the back of the room and the teachers’ desk facing the students, this will help control behavior. The students will know that the teacher can see them and what they are doing on the computer at all times (Bigner & Grayson, Foundations in Human Development, 2010).
Chapter 2 Task 3: Use an Attention Signal
It will be difficult to get the attention of students in a computer lab. In order to get their attention I will need to create an attention signal that is both visual and auditory. The attention signal that I will use will consist of me saying, “May I have your attention please,” while raising my hand in a circular motion from ground to ceiling. When students hear this signal they are expected to raise their hand as well. By having the students raise their hand, the students who are not paying attention will see that other students are quiet and have their hands risen. This attention signal will allow students to hear me and see my arm in motion. I will teach this signal at the beginning of the year and tell the students that I expect them to stop what they are doing and give their attention to me. If students are unwilling to pay attention respect the attention signal there will be some kind of consequence. The consequence could be that the student must help make sure all of the computers are signed off of the user and ready for the next class period. This will give the student less time to get to his/her next class which will encourage the student think about following the directions of the attention signal. Another consequence could entail less group activity during projects. For those students who follow the attention signal in a timely manner and are consistently following the attention signal, they might get a free homework day. This attention signal is the most commonly used signal according to Randy Sprick. Randy Sprick is the author of Champs A Proactive & Positive Approach to Classroom Management.
Erik Erikson is a theorist that conducted a timetable of developmental stages. Identity vs. Role confusion is the stage for children between the ages of thirteen and eighteen years of age. Identity vs. Role confusion is more common amongst peers and the theme of this stage is, “To be oneself; to share being oneself.” This theory can influence a teachers’ attention signal in many ways. One way it is influential is by peer pressure. Some students do not think that it is cool to raise your hand when the teacher is trying to get students attention. However, all a teacher needs is one student to set the tone of the classroom. If this one student raises his/her hand, then more than likely the other students will follow by example. This would be, “to share oneself” (Bigner & Grayson, Foundations in Human Development, 2010).
Chapter 2 Task 4: Design Effective Beginning and Ending Routines
The beginning of class I will give the students five minutes to; enter the classroom, puts homework assignments in designated tray on my desk, get to their seats and log on to their computer, and pull out any materials needed for class. Five minutes is a fair amount of time for the students to get organized. While students are entering the classroom I will smile and say hello while taking attendance so that there is no wasted time on this while the students prepared to start. By creating the students, I am making them feel welcome. This gives the students a sense of security in my classroom. A concept that coincides with self-understanding is, understanding of others. In middle childhood, “individuals learn that facial expressions are not always reliable indicators of others’ emotional states. Children learn around age eight or nine that not only are they expected to control their emotions, but that older people are also very skilled at doing so.” By high school, children understand facial expressions much better and when they see someone smiling, they sometimes can’t help but smile. After the students are in their seats, I will then move into a teacher instructed review.(Bigner & Grayson, Foundations in Human Development, 2010)
Students that are late for class are expected to enter the room without disturbing class. The student must put his/her excused or unexcused slip in a tray on my desk and proceed to his/her desk. The student will also be expected to get his/her materials out without making a lot of noise and pick up where the class is. There are usually school wide rules that deal with tardies, therefore, I would not need to implement any disciplinary action for tardies. However, if I did need to implement a disciplinary action, it would be that if a student were to have three or more unexcused tardies then the student would get detention. Students that do not have the appropriate materials for class will not be able to do the group activity. Those students will be doing individual work out of their book. They will not be able to use their computer to do the assignment either. The assignment will have to be hand written, and if they do not have a pencil the assignment will be given as homework.
For students that are absent, I will set aside a manila folder with his/her name on it with assignments and directions in it. When the student returns to school, the student will know that he/she needs to see me before class to retrieve his/her folder. The student will be able to take the assignment home for homework. If the assignment was a class activity that can not be done at home, then the student will receive a different homework assignment that will be due the next school day.
The class will have approximately ten minutes at the end of class to write down new assignments that I have posted on the board and put their stuff away. This ten minute block will give the students ample amount of time to log off of their computers and listen to any announcements that come over the intercom or that I may have for them. For my last block class, this will also give the students plenty of time to get ready to leave for the bus and get on the bus on time. Before I give the ten minute warning to pick up, I will tell the students that they did a great job today, and to have a great day. By telling the students this, I am encouraging them to have an attitude of initiative. According to Erik Erikson, attitude of initiative is defined as, “a feeling of confidence” (Bigner & Grayson, Foundations in Human Development, 2010).
Chapter 2 Task 5: Manage Student Assignments
There is a storage case in the front of the classroom by the door that will contain folders for every student in it. These folders will be color coordinated for each class and will be in alphabetical order according to each individual class. At the front of the classes folders there will be a folder for the entire class. There will be a tray that will fit 8x10 papers on the edge of my desk for students to put their homework assignments in at the beginning of each class and an index size tray next to that one for tardy slips. While students are doing independent work, I will be putting the homework assignments in the class folder. This will allow me to keep all of the classes assignments organized. During lunch or a free period I will go through each class that I have had up to that point and start organizing and grading the papers. The classes that I have after lunch or my free period I will take home to grade and put them in alphabetical order as I am grading them so that I can easily put them in the folders the next morning. The students will pick up their assignments when they first walk into class. Student will only have access to the folders at the beginning of class.
Homework will be put on the board during independent work and the students will be expected to write it down during the last ten minutes of class. I will give the students their classroom assignments after teacher-directed introduction of new material. I will also provide the students with a printout of all of the assignment due for the month. The students will be encouraged to mark off each assignment as it is completed. This sheet will also have a place for the students to record the grade received so that they may keep up with their grade in the class. This gives the students the opportunity to know what they need to work on and what they are accomplishing. By giving the students availability to know what their grade is at all times, this will hopefully gives the students a sense of industry. Sense of industry is defined as, “A positive, healthy attitude toward work and the need to master certain basic skills.” The students that turn in all of their assignments on time and correctly done will know that they are doing well in the class. The bad part of this would be those students who do not do well or turn in their assignments on time or at all might experience a sense of inferiority. Sense of inferiority is defined as, “a pervasive attitude of worthlessness” (Bigner & Grayson, Foundations in Human Development, 2010)
If a student turns in an assignment late, then the student will receive a 10% penalty. If the assignment is over a week (5 school days) late, then the student will receive a 15% penalty. Each student that has late or missing assignments at the end of each month will receive a letter listing the assignments and due dates that will need to be signed by parents and returned to the teacher the next school day. This will allow parents to be involved in their child’s academic career. I will explain all processes at the beginning of the school year so that the students can use deductive reasoning for what is expected of them throughout the year. Deductive reasoning is defined as, “beginning with the big picture and developing conclusions” (Bigner & Grayson, Foundations in Human Development, 2010).
Chapter 2 Task 6: Manage Independent Work Periods
Independent work (or group work) will occur after and only after the assignment is thoroughly explained. There will not be any assignments given for independent work that the students could not do. I plan to have independent work after lecture so that the information is still fresh in the students’ minds. I will explain the independent assignment after the teacher-directed introduction of new material. The students will be expected to do their independent work independently and not discuss it with other students. If a student has a question concerning the assignment then that student is free to come to my desk and ask me. If the student needs me to come to his/her desk to look at something then all the student has to do is raise his/her hand. For group projects, the students will be allowed to talk, however, they are expected to use their “inside voice.” At the beginning of the assignment I will be walking around the classroom asking each student if they understand what is being asked of them and give assistance to those who need it. Group work in my classroom will be like cooperative play. Cooperative play is defined as, “The integration of several children into group play where different roles are assumed.” This is similar to group assignments because in every group assignment there will be different tasks for each individual to complete. A group member is expected to find out the strengths and weaknesses of the group and delegate which task is better suited for each member. (Bigner & Grayson, Foundations in Human Development, 2010)
According to Maccoby, “parents begin training children for greater self-control in early childhood. In adolescence (high school), there is a greater sharing of social power between adults and students. This results in co-regulation, in which teachers exercise general supervision, whereas students gain in moment-to-moment self regulation.” Students will be allowed to have a certain amount of freedom when working in group projects. They will have access to any books or materials needed for the assignment and have the freedom to discuss with one another the assignment. This can all be accomplished if the students work in a reasonable manner. (Bigner & Grayson, Foundations in Human Development, 2010)
Chapter 3 Task 2: Develop and Display Classroom Rules
- Bring all required books and materials to every class unless instructed otherwise.
- Turn assignments in on time.
- Treat everyone and their property respectfully.
- Absolutely no food or drink permitted.
- Follow teacher instruction as soon as it’s given.
- Remain on task.
There will be a tack board behind my desk that will display the classroom rules. The rules that I will expect to be followed in my classroom are listed above. The rules I have listed are all stated in a positive manner and refer to observable behaviors. I will be able to see if each student is following the rules. The “Absolutely no food or drink permitted” rule will be a rule that must be followed throughout the entire class period, as well as rule number three, five, and six. At the beginning of the school year I will explain the rules to each student and tell them that the rules must be followed or there will be consequences. Since this is a high school classroom, it would be hard to reward the students with a party at the end of the year for always following the rules. However, if every student follows the rules for an entire month, I would probably give them each a free homework pass. A free homework pass would be a piece of paper that would exclude them from having to turn in an assignment or drop their lowest grade in the class. For those who do not follow the rules, I would take a group activity away and have them do an independent assignment instead. By giving both positive and negative rewards and disciplinary actions I am using reinforcers and punishers. Reinforcers and punishers are associated with the behavioral theory. Reinforcers “are meant to increase the behavior they follow.” Punishers “are meant to decrease the behavior they follow.” In other words, the free homework pass would be considered a reinforcer and the taking away of a group activity would be considered a punisher. The students will be expected to also follow Sigmund Freud’s basic concept of reality principle. Reality principle is defined, “according to Freud, the tendency to behave in ways that are consistent with reality.” The reality of school is to learn and grow. In order to learn and grow, a person must act in a manner that is socially acceptable. Students are asked to follow a certain amount of rules when in a school. (Bigner & Grayson, Foundations in Human Development, 2010)
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