- West Lafayette US-IN
My name is Jordan Michael and I would like to invite you to view my Professional Portfolio. I am a graduate of Purdue University with a degree in Communication in the school of Liberal Arts. Being a Liberal Arts major, to me, means that I promise to deliver creativity as well as a drive to achieve a mulitude of task that should be assigned to me. In addition to a good work ethic, I pride myself on my outgoing personality that demands attention. All of these skill sets in which i posses, allow me to believe that I have the potential to be a valuable asset to a wide variety of companies. I hope you enjoy my portfolio as well as learn ways in which I could benefit you as an employee.
- Jordan Michael
Jordan J. Michael
West Lafayette Indiana 47906
To obtain full-time employment in human resource management or related field
Purdue University - West Lafayette, IN
Bachelor of Arts in Communication Minor: History
Focus: Human Relations GPA: 2.9
Marion General Hospital June 2010 to August 2010
Scanning Quality Control
Assisted in integrating paper medical files into electronic medical files
Analyzed carefully thousands of patients electronic medical files before being used by staff
Formulated new ideas which helped ease the scanning process
Learned a number of medical terms through repetition
OEPP Internship Program January 2010 to May 2010
Observed the Oral English Proficiency Program to gain knowledge of their department
Worked with other students to develop and advertising campaign for the OEPP
Integrated several new advertising options for the OEPP that are still used today
Enhanced cultural awareness through several interactions with students of different nations
First Farmers Bank and Trust May 2005 to August 2006
IT and Bookkeeping Departments
Managed video security files and data entry in a demanding environment
Responsible for properly preparing board room meetings on a weekly basis
Communicated effectively between employees and IT department
Organized corporate mail for the entire branch on a daily basis
Tested network lines and servers upon request in order to reestablish connection
Skills and training
Microsoft Office Applications
Sigma Phi Epsilon New Member Educator
While deciding on a topic for my final paper, I began to think about all of the sights I saw in Europe and what sights intrigued me the most. I had it narrowed down to things such as the beaches of Normandy, Notre Dame, the Bastille etc... All of these subjects I found to be quite interesting but none generated as many question as the former emperor of France, Napoleon Bonaparte's tomb. Therefore, with much research I have come to answer these questions and along the way, found out some very interesting information about this once great emperor.
The date is March 14th, 2010 and I am standing at the entrance to the tomb of arguably the greatest and most powerful emperor to ever live. This tomb of course, belonged to none other than Napoleon Bonaparte, once the ruler of France as well as much of its surroundings. As soon as I walked in through the massive double doors en scripted "LS" for "Saint Louis," I was greeted by a very large room with a massive circle located directly in the middle under the gold dome that can be seen from outside. In the middle of this circle, beneath ground level, lies the sarcophagus of Napoleon. This casket was absolutely huge! I would venture to guess that it was roughly the size of an SUV made of beautiful wood. As mentioned before, the gold dome is located directly above Napoleon and inside of the dome is intricate paintings of cherubs, angles, and important biblical figures. I believe it was suggesting Napoleon's journey to heaven, as if he was being raised from the casket to the heavens. This man must have been pretty important to have such a huge and beautiful building erected just to hold his dead body. This was quite a different experience than any American tomb I have seen where your body is thrown into the ground, covered with dirt, and all that is left is a small headstone, bones, and the occasional flower or two from a loved one. I couldn't help but keep thinking to myself, all of this for just one man?
Napoleon Bonaparte was born August 15th, 1769 in Ajaccio, Corsica. A year earlier, this island belonged to the Republic of Genoa but was then part of France during Napoleon's birth. At age ten, Napoleon was enrolled in a religious school in Autun, a part of what was mainland France. Upon completion of his education in 1784, he was admitted to Ecole Militaire, an elite military school where he studied to be an artillery officer. Rising up through the military and political ranks, Napoleon returned to Paris from Egypt to attempt a coup to over throw the French constitutional government. Napoleon was successful and was joined my Sieyes and Ducos as provisional Consuls to administer the government. Napoleon then secured his own election as First consul making him the most powerful man in all of France.
His first move as ruler of France was to invade Italy and drive out the Austrians. Napoleon was successful in this campaign and on February of 1801, the Austrians sign the Treaty of Luneville. Napoleon was also successful in pulling France out of dept by selling land to America, also known as the Louisiana Purchase. He also established probably one of his greatest successes as ruler of France, his Code Civil. These codes were civil laws that many countries still use today including the United States. After many threats against his life, Napoleon was forced to declare himself Emperor of France to satisfy the royalist and Jacobins.
After many acquisitions of the surrounding lands during the Napoleonic Wars, Napoleon found himself facing the sixth coalition made up of Austria, Sweden, Russia, Great Britain, Prussia, Spain, and Portugal. After a loss at the Battle of Leipzig, Napoleon's numbers began to drop and the coalition's numbers continued to grow. Eventually Napoleon's army was out numbered three to one and Paris was soon lost to the coalition in March of 1814 forcing Napoleon to abdicate unconditionally on April 11th, 1814. He was then forced to renounce the thrown of all of France and Italy in the Treaty of Fontainebleau and was exiled to the Island of Elba.
Elba is an island located in the Mediterranean about fifteen miles off the coast of Tuscany and had roughly 12,000 citizens at the time of his exile. Napoleon was named emperor of Elba and had complete sovereignty. While on Elba, he created a relatively small military consisting of an army and navy, began a mining operation, and took up an interest in agriculture. However, this did not last very long and on February 26th, 1815, he escaped Elba and headed towards France to regain his thrown. This was a period in time known as the "Hundred Days," referring to Napoleons escape and re-occupancy of his thrown which lasted up to 100 days with his last being his defeat at Waterloo.
Fleeing from certain exile, Napoleon was caught by the British ship, HMS Bellerophon on July 15th, 1815. From there he was imprisoned and then exiled to an Island named Saint Helena in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean about 1250 miles from any landmass. While on Saint Helena, Napoleon moved into the Longwood House. This location was in very bad shape even for a peasant's standards and Napoleon often complained to the press about his mistreatment by the British. One man who Napoleon always complained to and could not stand went by the name of Sir Hudson Lowe. Lowe was a victorious military leader during the Napoleonic Wars and was even promoted to major-general shortly before we was charged to the position of custodian of Napoleon and governor of Saint Helena. After Napoleon's death he was heavily criticized for his actions on Saint Helena. The Duke of Wellington who was triumphant over Napoleon at the battle of Waterloo later said that he was "a very bad choice; he was a man wanting in education and judgement. He was a stupid man, he knew nothing at all of the world, and like all men who knew nothing of the world, he was suspicious and jealous." (Roseberry, 1900).
After nearly six years on Saint Helena, Napoleon fell ill of what was believed to be stomach cancer however, some scholars believed his death to be caused by arsenic poisoning. No matter how his death occurred, the emperor was dead. This brought up the question of where exactly was this ruler, the savior and hero of France to be buried? After all he was in exile but now that he was dead, how is he to cause any harm to the country he loved so much? This was to be a great debate known as "Retour Des Cendres" (Return of the Ashes) that would last until 1840 when Napoleon was finally laid to rest, laid to rest where I witnessed him under the golden dome of Les Invalides.
Since Napoleon was sent into exile by the British, they had supreme say in every decision made concerning Napoleon. This meant that the British even had the final say in where Napoleon was to be buried. It was decided that he was to buried under the willow trees in Sane Valley on Saint Helena disregarding Napoleon's request to be buried on "the banks of the Seine, in the midst of this French people who loved me so much." (Martineau,1976). So it was done and Napoleon was buried on Saint Helena for the time being. Immediately after his death, one of his colleagues, military general comte Bertrand, unsuccessfully petitioned the British government to have Napoleon's remains returned to France and buried next to the Seine. Even Napoleon's mother attempted to have her son returned to France with no such luck. In a letter to Foreign Secretary to the British government, Lord Castlereagh she wrote "...I gave Napoleon to France and to the world. In the name of God, in the name of all mothers, I come before you as a suppliant my Lord, asking that my son's remains should not be refused me." (Martineau, p.13). Lord Castlereagh did not reply.
Even though Napoleon briefly brought shame and disparity to France, he also brought to her glory and pr
ide that the people of this time period had not forgotten. Before his death and during his exile, Europe made it a point to make sure that there would never be another Napoleon and restore order and balance. (It reminded me a lot of the way Europe handled Hitler after WWII. The major difference being that Napoleon was more of a hero to the French whereas Hitler was a shame to the Germans). However, to the rest of Europe, he was to be forgotten and for the most part, he was. That is until after Napoleon's death on May 5th, and when word got back to France on July 5, 1821, news began to spread like wildfire and items such as newsletters and souvenirs began to spring up left and right remembering the famed emperor. Literature that told of the final days of Napoleon were selling by the masses, selling so quick that they could not be banned by the Bourbon Royalist. Napoleon was still loved by many of the French and with his death, it seemed as if it was now acceptable to celebrate the man who gave so much to France. However, no matter how loved he was, as long as he was not loved or missed by the Royalist of France, it did not matter if he was to be buried along the Seine or not.
During this time, there was quite the mix of party affiliates in France. Some, still loyal to Napoleon and his socialist movement, were called bonapartist. The other major party, who were followers of a monarchy, were to be called Royalist. When Napoleon was exiled to Saint Helena, there was much debate as to who was to take the throne. Some felt that it should be Napoleon's son, Napoleon II. Others felt that it should rightfully be returned to King Louis XVIII. This decision was not up to the people of France nor was it up to the existing government. The final decision was made by the British Duke of Wellington who saw it fit that the throne should be returned to King Louis XVIII. Upon Louis XVIII's arrival back to Paris from his refuge to London, he granted a pardon to all who were supporters of Napoleon during his 100 day reigne except for the "instigators". With all of this being said, it is hard to image that there was not any hostility between the two parties involved. This, in fact, would play a major role in whether or not Napoleon's remains would be allowed to return to Paris for a final resting place.
After many petitions from loved ones, friends, family, military partners, and loyal followers of Napoleon, King Louis XVIII saw it fit that Napoleon should not return to Paris in fear of an uprising or political unrest. However, ten years later, France was changing. Louis XVIII had since passed away and a new controversial king had taken over. King Louis Philippe had taken the thrown over what was supposed to be Napoleon's son's throne until his death at the age of twenty-one leaving his brother, Napoleon III next in line. Given the time and constant pressure of the rest of Europe, it was decided that it would not be wise to give the throne to a Bonaparte. Louis Philippe was now the King of France and with the throne came a number of problems. There was still political unrest between the two parties, France's economy was struggling, and the country was losing its sense of pride and nationalism once felt when Napoleon was emperor. To this problem, Adolphe Theirs saw a joyous solution. Bring back the body of France's beloved emperor from Saint Helena.
Theirs was the newly appointed President du Conseil under Louis Philippe and also an avid historian of French history. Theirs was a major supporter of the idea or returning the body of Napoleon to Paris and also a supporter of what Napoleon stood for. He even told King Jerome of Westphalia, the youngest brother of Napoleon, " Of all the Frenchmen of my day, I'm one of those most attached to the glorious memory of Napoleon." (Martineau, p.85). Theirs suggested that bringing back the remains of Napoleon would solve a number of problems facing France including the never ending hostility between Britain and France. "...nothing would more tend to cement the union between the two nations and create a friendly feeling towards England and France than the acquiescence of the British government." Theirs also wrote, "England cannot tell the world that she wishes to keep a corpse prisoner. When a condemned man has been executed, his body is returned to his family. But may Heaven pardon me for comparing the greatest of men to a criminal executed on the scaffold." After much hesitation, Louis Philippe finally agreed to have Napoleon's body exhumed and brought back to be buried in Paris.
The next step was to decide where in Paris to bury Napoleon. Since Napoleon was exiled twice in his reigne as emperor, he was not well received by everyone and much debate went into this decision. Many felt that he should be buried at Saint-Denis where he himself picked out his own vault among the past rulers of France. Others felt he should be buried at the Pantheon or the Champ-de-Mars. When all was said and done, it was voted that Napoleon should be laid to rest in Les Invalides, a military hospital and home for French war veterans built under Louis XIV due to the fact that Napoleon was best remembered for the glory he received on the battlefield. It was also decided that the journey to Saint Helena would be headed by the son of Louis Philippe, Prince de Joinville in his frigate. Joinville was an admiral in the French Navy and being the son of the king, most, other than Joinville, saw it fit. Joinville felt reluctant to head this voyage due to the fact that Napoleon dethroned his bourbon ancestors. However, he had no choice and the recovery party set out on July 2nd 1840.
The voyage lasted 93 days each way and the funeral was set to take place on December 15th. On the way back, through every town they passed, people would come to the banks shouting "long live the emperor!" As they got closer to Paris the cheers and excitement grew even bigger and bigger until they reached the Seine where it was described as an Olympic style celebration despite the negative ten degree weather. Napoleon's body was then put onto an enormous hearse that stood ten meters high and weighed thirteen tons that was pulled by fourteen black horses. His body was paraded around the streets of Paris including Champs-Elysees towards the Arc de Triomphe, the same path that our class walked over spring break! The hearse eventually wound up at Les Invalides around 1:30 p.m. and Napoleon's body was placed in Saint Jerome's Chaple where it would rest until the renovation of the Eglise du Dome where Napoleon would come to rest for eternity. He is entombed in the center below ground level and is accompanied by important Frenchmen such as his brothers Jerome and Joseph, his son Napoleon II, Ferdinand Foch Marshal of France during WWI, and most importantly his dear friend and army general who fought beside him til his death, Bertrand.
After much research, I have learned the path taken by Napoleon's remains to get to where I saw him in his final resting place at Les Invalides. I had many questions that I felt were answered to my satisfaction and I am pleased with the results of my research. I found that Napoleon was quite an interesting man. I found that he was loved by his people even twenty years after his death. He was such an inspiration that people far to young to even remember the days in which he ruled were yelling "viva la emperor!" when his remains passed by on the way to Les Invalides. Napoleon will forever be remembered as a great man and for the glory he brought to France as well as himself. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe put it best when describing Napoleon's life "it shone (his life) with a brilliance that the world have never seen before and will doubtless never see again.
1.) Martineau, G. (1976). Napoleon's last journey. London, England: John Murray.
2.) Wikipedia-Les invalides. (2010, April 21). In wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved April 29th 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Les_Invalides
-Napoleon Bonaparte (2010, April 29). In wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved April 29th 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleon_I
-Retour des cendres (2010, February 12) In wikipedia, the free encycolpedia. Retrieved April 29th 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retour_des_cendres
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