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Education Qualification

September 2008December 2015

Doctor of Philosophy in Education: Teaching and Learning with Specialization in Qualitative and Interpretive Research

University of California, Santa Barbara

Dissertation Title:  A Reflexive Approach in Coming to Know: Uncovering the Logic-of-Inquiry in Ethnographic Research

September 2008September 2013

Master of Arts in Education: Teaching and Learning

University of California, Santa Barbara

Thesis:  "What Counts as Mathematics?" A Curriculum Analysis of the Common Core Standards in Mathematics from K-8th Grade

September 2000June 2002

Master of Arts in Education: Curriculum and Instruction in Multicultural Contexts

Azusa Pacific University

Thesis: "Dialoging Through Student-to-Student Journals": Developing Writing Practices

September 1998June 2000

Multiple Subject Credential

California State University, Northridge 

Emphasis: Cross-cultural, Language and Academic Development (CLAD)

September 1996December1997

Bachelor of Arts: Liberal Studies

California State University, Dominguez Hills

Minor: Spanish

Research Interest

My research background and interests are grounded in an Interactional Ethnographic approach to the study of how, in and through, interactions in situated contexts, participants (e.g. instructors, students, and facilitators) individually and collectively develop oral, written, and visual texts as they negotiate what counts as disciplinary knowledge. My research interests also include the ways in which technology supports and/or constrains innovative opportunities for learning in inquiry-based programs. A particular research interest of mine is to examine how local theories, cultural practices, and processes as well as situated meanings are interactionally accomplished through the daily discursive and social interactions among participants. Given my experience in an overtime ethnographic research project, I have also become interested in exploring the reflexive processes necessary to construct local data sets for analysis  from the archived records that address unanticipated questions arising within an ongoing ethnographic project. This part of my research seeks to understand how researcher(s)' construct a logic-in-use guiding the construction of an archive as well as  the analyses and interpretations of archived written and video records of life in particular learning spaces or programs. 

Professional Experience

July 2013January 2015

Research Coordinator for Inter-segmental Grant: University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) -California State University, East Bay (CSUEB)

University of California, Santa Barbara                                                 Gevirtz Graduate School of Education
  • Served as Lead Ethnographer of  a team of Graduate Student Researchers to conduct an ethnographic research study of the Long Term and Futures Thinking Project (LTFT) Initiative with California State University of East Bay. In this role I:
    • coordinated and facilitated the team's  collaborative archived records (re)viewing(s) and data analyses sessions
    • collected additional records  from the internal IE team at CSUEB
    • reviewed and transcribed archived video records of class sessions, interviews, and meetings
    • interacted with the Lead Professor and the Principal Investigator to clarify meanings of the activities and actions identified through the ongoing data analysis
    • participated in interview-conversations and inter-segmental meetings between UCSB and CSUEB in which I  took fieldnotes of the developing institutional contexts
    • co-authored  and co-presented the Preliminary and Final Reports of the LTFT project to advisory board members and the internal IE team at CSUEB
    • co-presented the LTFT project at the Teaching for Long Term and Futures Thinking in Education and Context. Conference. San Francisco, California (2015). 
September 2003June 2010

Adjunct Faculty

Azusa Pacific University                                                                          School of Education, Department of Advanced Studies 
  • Courses taught in the Curriculum and Instruction in Multicultural Contexts Program in Advanced Studies, Education Department in a face-to-face and hybrid instructional settings
  • Research for Educators (EDUC 589A & 589B)
  • Assessment and Evaluation (EDUC 508)
  • Instructional Principles and Practices  (EDUC 554)
  • Special Topics in Education (EDUC 509)
  • Advised and mentored graduate students in the Advance Studies department  
January 2015Present

Special Projects/English Learner Support Teacher

Hueneme Elementary School District

District-wide Support

  • Manage and update databases on all district English Learner (EL) students
  • Access reports from district and state databases related to EL students for data analyses and program planning
  • Coordinate, generate, monitor, and present  local and state EL data to multiple stakeholders
  • Interface with district data personnel on maintaining accurate data and programs for English Learners
  • Assist in Federal Program Monitoring
  • Assist district administrators in the planning, developing, implementing, and evaluating the ELD program districtwide
  • Update the District English Learner Development (ELD) Program Plan
  • Coordinate district Language Assessment Scale (LAS) testing 
  • Coordinate State and Local Language Proficiency Assessment at the District Level including organizing materials and training examiners
  • Coordinate EL Instructional Assistant training
  • Train and mentor newly hired English Learner Support Teachers 

School-Based Administration Support

  • Assist school site administrators in the development and implementation  English Language Development (ELD) program for the school based on the California English Language Development Standards
  • Collaborate with administrators and staff to facilitate and/or support  professional development related to the teaching and learning of EL students
  • Assist with data analysis, forming ELD groupings, providing research-based instructional practices
  • Assist site administration with parent involvement and community outreach 

Teacher Support

  • Coach teachers to design and teach interdisciplinary lessons  by modeling and co-teaching. 
  • Guide teachers how to analyze students data in order to monitor progress and (re)construct lessons and modify instructions 

Student Support

  • Provide English Language Development (ELD) instructions to  targeted EL students
  • Mentor EL students to advance to English fluency and maintain academic achievement

School-Community Relationship

  • Monitor  EL students' English proficiency levels and communicate with the students, teachers, families, and administrators the progress of all EL students in ELD proficiency levels and ways to achieving reclassification status
  • Partner with parents and families to develop strategies and action plans to implement at home to support EL students to advance their English proficiency
  • Conduct informational meetings to communities and for families in order  to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge regarding the EL program options, reclassification process and other EL related issues districtwide 
August 2016 February 2017

Interim Assistant Principal: Green Junior High School

Hueneme Elementary School District
  • Managed, supervised, and supported faculty and staff
  • Managed  students academic performance and student affairs
  • Coordinated the administration of school-wide, district-wide and state mandated assessments in accordance to federal, state, and local education laws and regulations
  • Regulated student clubs (i.e. Associated Student Body (ASB), California Junior Scholarship Federation (CJSF), Renaissance Award Committee, etc..)
  • Coordinated the Gifted and Talented Education (GATE) Program
  • Managed the school site's English Language Development (ELD) Program
  • Communicated to families, stakeholders,  and communities regarding school business and student affairs
August 1998December 2014

General Education Teacher

Hueneme Elementary School District
  • Taught diverse and multicultural students in multiple classroom configurations
    • Sixth Grade Teacher in Gifted And Talented Education (GATE), Advanced Via Individual Determination (AVID), English Learner (EL), and English Only  (EO)Students  classroom settings
    • Fifth Grade and Second Grade  Teacher in heterogeneous group (GATE, EO, EL students
  • Served in school site leadership team, department chair, and several school committees
  • Participated in piloting and evaluating new curriculum and technology in the classroom
  • Designed and wrote English Language Arts district-wide curriculum for 6th Grade 
  • Trained and mentored newly hired teachers and supervised student teachers from local universities, doing student teaching in the classroom


Articles and Encyclopedia Entries

Green, J. & Chian, M. (in press) "Triangulation". The SAGE Encyclopedia of Educational Research, Measurement, and Evaluation.In  B. Frey (Ed). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publishing.

Role: Contributing author

Contributions:  I conducted a literature review of the concepts and definition of triangulation in both quantitative/measurement and qualitative fields 

Key abstract: This chapter defines triangulation as ways in which researchers, guided by their particular logic-of-inquiry, make conceptually driven decisions about how to design, collect, interpret claims about social, cultural, linguistics, psychological, and academic phenomena in educational settings. It presents two telling cases how researchers triangulate theories, methods, data and data sources as well as investigator(s)' actions and observations in order to gain insiders' perspectives within an ongoing program of research: Multitrait/multimethod research processes and ethnographic and field-based qualitative research processes. 

Green, J.; Chian, M.; Stewart, E; Couch, S. (in press) What is an ethnographic archive and archive of? A telling case of challenges in exploring developing interdisciplinary programs in higher education. Special Journal Issue: ACTA Paedagogica Vilnensia. (38)2017. Vilniaus Universiteto Edukologijos Katedara (of Educology Vilnius University. Vilnius, Lithuania.

Role: Contributing author

Contributions: I developed the graphic representations and the analyses with contributions of my research team that are present in this paper. I wrote the abstract and paper summary with my team's support and insights.

Key abstract: This paper seeks to (re)think what constitutes records within an ethnographic archive by making visible the challenges that our external IE team encountered as we entered the records, archived by the internal IE team, that we were invited to support the documentation and analysis of a developing Instructional Development Project (IDP). Although both teams shared a common conceptual logic-of-inquiry, Interactional Ethnography, what became evident were the limits to certainty (Green & Baker, 2007) that led us to (re)examine why particular records were archived and what they were records of. Further, the paper presents principles of conduct (Green & Bridges, in press) that were undertaken to develop understandings of the events, texts, actors, spaces, times, meanings proposed and actions constructed by participants in order to uncover the levels of contextual surround that influenced the pathways of the IDP initiative. 

Green, J.; Joo, J.; Dai, Y.; Hirsch, T.; Chian, M.; David B.P. (2016).  Challenges in understanding different epistemologies for studying learning: A telling case of constructing a new research agenda. International Journal of Education Research. Volume 84, pp 119-126.

Role: Contributing author

Contributions: I reviewed and analyzed the sets of articles in a special issue as part of an invited commentary. This involved contrastive analysis of the logic-in-use of each article to identify the ways in which the team of authors undertook their research project and constructed the claims from these articles. 

Key abstract: In this commentary, an intergenerational, international, and interdisciplinary makes visible the need for a conceptual approach  to reading each article individually as well as to reading across these articles in this special issue  as a whole volume, in order to explore what this new research agenda might entail from the perspective of those contributing to its construction (Green, Castanheira, Skukauskaite & Hammond, 2015). This approach requires readers to step back from what they expect to learn from a given article, in order to build a way of exploring what is possible to know, understand, and envision as needed actions and language(s) to explore learning, learners and learning contexts from different points of view in the ever-changing fluid world(s) of the 21st Century. The goal was to present how different forms of local knowledge (i.e., problem-solving or practice-based knowledge, including knowledge guiding logics-in-use) and encyclopaedic (i.e., scientific) knowledge and actions are necessary to (re)formulate the current research agenda. 


Green, J.;  Chian, M.; Stewart, E.;  Stewart, A.; Yun, D. (2015) Final Research/Evaluation Report: Pilot Instructional Project of The Long-Term and Futures Project at California State University, East Bay (2012-2014).

Role: Contributing author 

Contributions: I analyzed the archived records (video and syllabi), students performance in an online context, and email dialogue of the instructional development team and PI, with the research team. I wrote major portions of the report. 

Key abstract: This final report provides the report of the research processes, the theoretical perspective that framed the logic-of-inquiry that was undertaken by the external research team with the support of the internal ethnographers and instructional design team and the Principal Investigator of the research project.  It traces the roots and the pathways of the Long Term and Futures Thinking Initiative from its inception, the pre-planning of the courses integration in Summer of 2012 through the creation of the "best course to date", Spring 2014 by triangulating perspectives of the curricular design team and the Principal Investigator and the Director of the initiatve; data sets; and archived records. The findings from multiple levels of analyses revealed principles and processes required in developing innovative interdisciplinary curriculum in higher education.

Green, J.;  Chian, M.; Stewart, E.;  Stewart, A.; Yun, D. (2015)  Executive Summary: Final Research/Evaluation Report: Pilot Instructional Project of The Long-Term and Futures Project at California State University, East Bay (2012-2014).

Role: Contributing author 

Contributions: See Final Report above

Key abstract: This Executive Summary provides a summary of the research processes and the theoretical framework that guided the logic-of-inquiry in the research and evaluation of the Long Term and Future Thinking Project. Findings from the multiple levels of analyses are made visible key principles and processes  that are crucial to consider when developing an innovative interdisciplinary initiative in higher education.

In Preparation

Green, J.; Chian, M.; Stewart, E.; & Lao, R. Contributions  of Courtney Cazden to education research . Sage Encyclopedia of Research Methods. In P. Atkinson, S.  Delamont, M. Hardy, & M.  Williams (Eds). London: Sage Publishing.

Role: Contributing author

Contributions: I am conducting an historical review of major publications of Courtney Cazden and providing summaries to the writing team.



Chian, M. & Couch, S. Designing and Researching Innovative Interdisciplinary Curriculum in Undergraduate Education Initiative: Embedded and External Ethnographers’ Reflexive Approach. Structured Poster Session: American Education Research Association, San Antonio,  TX (April 2017)

Role: Lead author and  lead presenter

Contributions: I developed the poster with the contributions of both the PI of the LTFT program and my research team I led. I also presented the poster during the structured poster session for the Language and Social Processes, Special Interest Group.

Key abstract: This structured poster seeks to contribute to the growing call for a more reflexive approach in both the research process and the reporting of the cultural practices (Ellen, 1984;Clifford and Marcus, 1986; Atkinson, 1990; AERA, 2006; Waring, 2012; Kumpulainen, Erstad et al, 2016) by making visible the work between an inter-segmental team of internal ethnographers, who collected and archived records through participant observation and the external team, who constructed and analyzed data from the archived records to explore the developmental pathways of new initiative in higher education. Guided by Interactional Ethnography, it presents two sets of telling cases (Mitchell, 1984) by (re)analyses of archived records, reflexive dialogues (past and present) and email chains among participants. The first set makes visible the reflexive process (i.e. actions and decisions) undertaken by the initiative's  Project Investigator (second author) to construct empirical evidence of the roles and relationships necessary to guide and support a complex inter-segmental research project. The second set of telling case presents the reflexive process undertaken by the lead ethnographer (first author) to uncover how and it what ways, did the external IE team engaged in conceptualizing and constructing a logic-in-use to develop an emic perspective on the processes and principles of reformulating established courses to integrate university-sanctioned disciplinary knowledge. 

Chian, M. Making Visible the Challenges of Researching an Ongoing Project: Seeking Insider’s Perspective. Pre-Conference Workshop:Exploring an Ethnographic Perspective as a Logic-of-Inquiry. National Council of Teacher of  English Assembly for Research 2017:Midwinter Conference, San Francisco State University, San Francisco, CA (February 2017)

Key abstract: This presentation presents the theoretical framework and epistemological perspective that guided the logic-in-use  that a team of external ethnographers(co)constructed and (re)constructed, with the support of  an internal ethnographers, in order to seek insider's perspective on the developmental pathways of an innovative initiative in higher education. It unfolds the challenges encountered as well as decisions and actions undertaken by the external ethnographers in researching an ongoing project. The reflexive process made visible the need to (re)enter archived records in multiple points of analyses; to collect additional sets of records; to have an ongoing dialogue with the internal ethnographer and instructional team; and to trace actors and their roles and relationships that shaped the development of the initiative.  


Chian, M. "What Counts as Mastery of an Integrated Curriculum in Higher Education: Contrastive Analysis of Students' Differential Performance."  Language and Social Processes Mentoring Workshop and Roundtable Conversation: Creating Dialogue Across "Generations" of Scholars. American Education Research Assembly, Washington, D.C.  (April 2016)

Key abstract: This work-in-progress paper seeks to explore what students need to know, understand, and do in order to seek mastery in an integrated curriculum in higher education. Guided by discourse analysis, (Bloome et al, 2005), this paper presents a contrastive analysis of responses of three different assignmentby two students at varying levels of development, one at mastery and one at developing mastery, as identified by the professor.  The analysis focused on what the students  proposed, recognized, acknowledged as socially and academically significant through their responses to the written assignments (Bloome et. al, 2005). The disparity of the number of references made by the two students led additional analyses of the students' years in the program, number of courses taken as well as the syllabus of four integrated courses taken by the students with mastery. The preliminary findings reveal that both students had taken three courses with similar university catalog numbers; however,  the student with mastery had taken one more course than the developing mastery and had started the program one year earlier. This findings suggest deeper exploration how the role of time, by extension, engagement of content, shape the development of mastery or literacy within a discipline. 

Chian, M.; Stewart, E; Stewart, A.; Green. J.  "Conducting Interview-Conversations with Computer Mediated Communication in Virtual Space: Gaining Emic Perspectives. Round table Session entitled: VISUALizing Qualitative Methods. American Education Research Association. Washington, D.C. (April, 2016).

Role: Lead author and lead presenter

Contributions: I wrote the proposal and the paper with contributions of my research team and co-presented the paper in a round table session compiled by Measurement and Research Methodology, Division D, of the American Education Research Association (AERA). 

Key abstract: This paper presents a telling case of how a team of external ethnographers conducted series of interview-conversations via computer-mediated-communication  in virtual space  to seek insider's perspective on the developing processes of integrating university-sanctioned content area into an established disciplinary content in an Organizational Communication major. The virtually-enabled component of the interview-conversations through Google Hangout and email fostered an ongoing dialogic communication between the two teams, which allowed the external ethnographers to (re)enter the site and to the informants/participants, without physically there,  throughout the research process. The interview-conversations allowed the interview to speak freely and enabled the interviewer to follow the trail of conversation as it develops leading to the (co)construction of meaning through their discourse-in-use (Bloome & Clark, 2005). These series of interview-conversations provided insights to what the interviewees were proposing, recognizing, and acknowledging as socially and academically signigicant (Bloome et al, 2006).

Arya, D.; Balos, N.,  Chian, M. Green, J.  "The Transdisciplinary Nature of Educational Ethnography". Alternative Session-National Council of Teachers of English Assembly for Research  2016: Midwinter Conference. Eastern Michigan  University, Ypsilanti, MI. (February, 2016)

Role: Co-author and co-presenter

Contributions:  I presented the Long Term and Futures Thinking project, as one of two projects to demonstrate Interactional Ethnographic approach to studying innovative educational programs.

Key abstract: This presentation presents the Long Term and Futures Thinking Inter-Segmental Research Project between the University of California, Santa Barbara and California State University, East Bay (CSUEB). It provides the nature of the interdependent work between external ethnographers (UCSB) and the internal ethnographers  (CSUEB), to (co)research and evaluate the development of an ongoing program initiative in higher education. 


Green, J. & Chian, M.  An Interactional Ethnographic Perspective: Making Visible the Developing Process of Design, Instruction, and Student Learning. Presentation: Teaching for Long Term and Futures Thinking (LTFT): LTFT in Education and Context Conference. San Francisco, California. ( (July, 2015)

Role: Co-author and co-presenter

Contributions: I designed the Powerpoint presentation and co-presented the research processes undertaken for the LTFT program.

Key abstract: The presentation provides the logic-of-inquiry that guided the research and evaluation of the  Long Term and Futures Thinking (LTFT) initiative at California State University, East Bay. Also included in the presentations are key principles and processes that were made visible my the multiple levels of analyses undertaken by the external ethnographers with the support of the internal ethnographers embedded within the local site of study. 

Chian. M.  What Counts as Mastery: Contrastive Analysis of Students' Differential Performance in an Emerging Area of Study in Higher Education. Working Discussion Session: 10th Annual Discourse Analysis in Educational Research Conference at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. (May, 2015).

Key abstract: This work-in-progress paper seeks to explore what students need to know, understand, and do in order to seek mastery in an integrated curriculum in higher education. Guided by discourse analysis, (Bloome et al, 2005, this paper presents a contrastive analysis of responses of three different assignment by two students at varying levels of development, one at mastery and one at developing mastery, as identified by the professor.  In particular, the analysis focused on what the students  proposed, recognized, acknowledged as socially and academically significant and recorded the number of their references made of the content as was inscribed in their responses of the three assignments. This disparity of the number of their references led to explore further what factors that may have contributed to the differential performance level. 

Chian, M. with Hellman, F.; Brooks, L.; Couch, S.; Yeager, B, & Saveri, A.  Challenges in Seeking the Emic Perspective: Processes and Principles of Designing for the Unknown in Higher Education.  Structured Poster Session: American Education Research Association. Chicago. Illinois. (April 2015).

Role: Lead Author and lead Presenter

Contributions:  i developed the proposal and the poster with the contributions of my research team and the instructional design team as well as the internal ethnographers. I presented the poster in an structured poster session for Post secondary education, Division J, American Education Research Association (2015).

Key Abstract: This poster makes visible the challenges that a team of external ethnographers encountered when conducting an ethnographic research to trace the developmental pathways of an innovative initiative in higher education for two years. Guided by discourse analysis and Interactional Ethnography, as a philosophy of inquiry, the external team seeks to uncover what the professor needed to know, understand, and do to make visible the often invisible layers of decision making processes that led to the construction of what the lead professor claimed  as "our best course to date".  To gain an emic understanding what led to the development of "best course to date" framed the need for the external ethnographers to trace the roots and routes of the initiative, which made visible multiple actors and their roles and relationships, events, and contextual surround that shaped the integration of the courses and the development of the initiative.

Green, J. with Chian, M. ; Yun D.; Joo, J.; Stewart, E.  What is Happening Here? Ethnographic Eyes on Analyzing Video. Interactive Sessions with Undergraduate Scholars: American Education Research Association,  Chicago. Illinois. (April, 2015).

Role: Lead contributor

Contributions: I prepared supplemental material for the sessions, and led a group of undergraduate scholars during an interactive discussions in relations to their research interests and the use of video analysis from an ethnographic lens.

Key abstract: The interactive sessions provides the undergraduate scholars an introduction of using ethnographic perspective in (re)viewing video records in order to construct data for analyses as well as opportunities for the scholars to engage in discussions among their peers in relations to their research interests or questions.


Chian, M.  Math in Practice: Developing Disciplinary Literacies by Talking  and Thinking  Like Mathematicians in a 5th Grade Bilingual Classroom. Working Discussion Group: 9th Annual Discourse Analysis in Education Research Conference, Ohio State University. (May 2014).

Key abstract: This work-in progress paper seeks to explore how, and in what ways, students in a 5th Grade Bilingual class negotiated meaning and (co) constructed and (re)constructed disciplinary literacy  during math sessions. Guided by  Interactional Ethnography perspective and discourse analysis, this paper seeks to analyze video records of math class sessions and examine how the students develop to talk and think like mathematicians through the social interactions and classroom discourse across time and events.

Awards and Nominations

2013-2014     Philip and Helen Green Research Fellowship

1998-1999     Nominated for National Sallie Mae First Year Teacher Award in United States

Professional Membership

American Education Research Association (AERA)

Literacy Research Association (LRA)

National Council of Teachers of English Assembly for Research (NCTEAR)

National Council of Teachers of English (NCTE)

National Education Association  (NEA)

California Association of Bilingual Education (CABE)

California Teacher Association (CTA)

Professional Service

Reviewer Activity

Manuscript Reviewer for Special Journal Issue: Rethinking Ethnography. ACTA Paedagogica Vilnensia. Volume 38, 2017. Vilniaus universiteto Edukologijos katedra (Department of Educology Vilnius University) Vilnius, Lithuania

Reviewer for American Education Research Association, Division G, Paper Submissions (2014)

Reviewer for  National Council Teacher of English Assembly for Research, Paper Submissions (2015)

Leadership Positions

National Council Teacher of English Assembly for Research,  Historian (2015-2016)

Graduate Student Liaison for American Educational Research Association, Division G (Social Context) (2014-2016)

Fellow of  the Center for Education Research on Literacy and Language and Inquiry in Networking Communities (2012-2015)

President of Futures Teachers of America-California State University, Dominguez Hills Chapter (1996-1997)

Professional Service: K-12    

Statewide Services

Member of the English Language Proficiency Assessment for California (ELPAC)  Writing Range Finder

Committee for California Department of Education in Sacramento (February 2017)

Countywide Services

Member of the  English Learner Leadership Network (2015-Present)

Beginning Teacher Support and Assessment (BTSA) Support Provider (2003-2005)

District-wide Services

Member of Common Core State Standards Writing Team for 6th Grade- ELA (2012-2015)

Curriculum Adoption Committee (1999-2000; 2008-2010)

School-Site Services

California English Language Development Test (CELDT) Coordinator (2015-Present)

Language Assessment Team (LAT) Chairperson (2015-Present)

Mentor Teacher (1999-Present)

Gifted and Talented Education Coordinator (2016)

Department Chairperson (2002-2004)

Supervising Teacher for University Student Teachers (2003-2005)

School Leadership Team Member (2001-2004)

Community Service

Committee Member of Fundraising Event of Clean Organization (2016)

Community Based English Tutoring Parents and Adults -Teacher (2005-2006)

Hueneme Elementary School District Annual Memorial Golf Tournament Coordinator (2000-2016)

Calvary Ventura Children's Sunday School Supervisor and Teacher (2006-Present)

Language Proficiency

English-Fluent Proficiency

Tagalog-Fluent Proficiency

Spanish-Intermediate Proficiency

Ilocano-Native Language