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Work experience

Jun 2007Present


BlueSky Research, LLC

BlueSky provides marketing research and marketing consulting services.  It is a virtual company with no employees; instead, it uses a network of professionals and specialty firms to provide the same services offered by large, full-service research companies. 

Clients are in health care, consumer foods, outdoor power equipment, quick service restaurants, and building products. 

Two areas of consulting expertise are: 1) WELLNESS, a subcategory of health care; and, 2) GREEN products & services, such as recycling, solar power, and electrically powered equipment.

Jun 2001Present


Red Sky Management, LLC

Red Sky Management is a real estate investment company.

It is through this company that I have done expert witness work for intellectual property cases.  These cases have included false-misleading labeling, design patent infringement, secondary meaning of product color, and acquired distinctiveness of a product design.

Apr 2009Present

Board Member

Kendall at Home

Board of Directors and Member of the Marketing Committee for Kendall at Home, Incorporated. This is a not-for-profit corporation that helps people continue living at home instead of entering assisted living. It is a semi-autonomous division of Kendall Corporation.

Aug 1982Jun 2001


National Market Measures, Incorporated

National Market Measures, Incorporated was a full-service, custom marketing research company with clients in business, health care, and non-profit.

This company was profitable from Day 1 and grew by low double digits from 1982 to 2001.  In 2001, we sold the assets to a Toledo-based investment group.  At this point, the company employed 16 full-time, salaried plus about 20 FTE hourly people.  It was the largest company of its kind in the Cleveland-Akron metro area.

In 2005, the assets were re-sold to MarketVision Research in Cincinnati and continues to operate under that name. 

Sep 1979Jun 1991

Associate Professor

Assistant, then tenured Associate Professor, Marketing Department, James J. Nance Graduate College of Business, Cleveland State University, Cleveland, Ohio. Taught undergrad and graduate courses in Marketing, Marketing Research, Advertising, Product Management, Business Ethics, and Buyer Behavior.

Aug 1984Jan 1985

Visiting Associate Professor

University of Michigan Graduate School

Taught two MBA courses in Marketing Research and published a paper while on sabbatical from Cleveland State University.

Sep 1972Sep 1978


Various positions in research and marketing consulting starting as a telephone interviewer and field supervisor while working my way through graduate school.


Sep 1976Jun 1979


Michigan State University

Dissertation:  "The Communications Effectiveness of Comparative Advertising Under Conditions of Product Involvement & Brand Use."


1.  Customer satisfaction, retention, & recovery from service failure

2.  Marketing strategy, particularly brand strategies in multi-brand business units

3.  New product development

4.  Communications effectiveness of advertising

5.  Survey research methods, experimental design, and qualitative research


"The Communications Effectiveness of Comparative Advertising Under Conditions of Product Involvement and Brand Use," 9th Annual Albert Haring Symposium, Proceedings, Indiana University Graduate School of Business, Bloomington, Indiana, 1979. This paper was based on my doctoral dissertation that showed the consequences of comparative advertising vis a vis noncomparative and "Brand X" advertising. Comparative advertising is useful for reaching some communications objectives, but not others; it should be used very carefully by firms, taking into consideration their current position in the market and what they want their advertising to achieve.

"Comment on 'An Experimental Investigation of Comparative Advertising'", Journal of Marketing Research, May 1981. Conceptual and methodological critique of an experiment on comparative advertising.

"Brand Commitment & Product Involvement," Journal of Advertising Research, December 1981. Theoretical relationship between two important constructs in consumer behavior, with evidence showing they can be at odds with each other. Parts of this article were republished in at least one textbook on Consumer Behavior.

(With M. Corrigan & E. Thomas) "The Word Processing Equipment Selection Process: The Relative Importance of Choice Criteria for Decision Makers", Office Systems Research Journal, Spring, 1983. Examination of the choice criteria buyers use for selecting word processing equipment for offices. The analysis is based largely on a unique scale manipulation.

"Ordinal & Interval Scaling", Journal of the Marketing Research Society, November 1983. A discussion of the consequences of violating assumptions about what is "permissible" in different levels of measure, especially using parametric statistics to analyze ordered metric data. Inquiries about this article came from England, Yugoslavia, Poland, Japan, Australia, and New Zealand as well as the U.S.

(With A. Mathias) "Image Effects of Attorney Advertising," Journal of Advertising, December 1983. A projective experiment that suggests TV advertising can hurt rather than help the image of an attorney, but that the damage can be lessened if there is also strong word-of-mouth.

(With S. Klock) "Older & Younger Models and Older Age Audiences: A Communications Effectiveness

              Experiment," Akron Business & Economic Review, Winter, 1983. A projective experiment that shows

              older age consumers react similarly to older and younger models in advertising.

"Ego Involvement & Brand Commitment", Journal of Consumer Marketing, Winter, 1984. A theoretical discussion of the relationship between these two constructs, with implications for market segmentation and marketing strategy.

(With W.B. Joseph) "Measuring Consumer Involvement: Developing a General Scale," Psychology & Marketing,

                Summer, 1984.  Development of a short, general scale to measure consumer involvement across a

                variety of products, with reliability and validity checks.

(With W.B. Joseph) "Reply to Arora and Baer's Comment on Measuring Consumer Involvement," Psychology & Marketing, Summer, 1985. Defense of the theoretical basis for developing a unidimensional rather than multidimensional scale to measure consumer involvement in products.

"Cannibalism in Multi-Brand Firms," Journal of Consumer Marketing, Spring, 1986. Theoretical yet pragmatic

              discussion of conditions under which brand cannibalization should be ac- cepted in new product

              development strategy. The paper combines marketing and financial considerations for companies.

              This article was republished in the Journal of Product & Brand Management in Summer, 1992.

"Product Involvement", in Business Research Guide: Marketing Richard Hise & Walton Beacham, eds., Research Publishing Washington, DC, 1986. A brief discussion of the history and recent developments of this construct, and its practical implications for marketing management.

"Comparative Advertising", in Business Research Guide: Marketing, Richard Hise & Walton Beacham, eds., Research Publishing: Washington, DC, 1986. A brief, practical discussion of the circumstances under which a firm should or should not use comparative advertising.

(With A.C. Gross & P.J. Shuman) "Corporate Sponsorship of Arts & Sports Events", ESOMAR Conference Proceedings, Montreux Congress, September 1987. A discussion of the growth of sponsorship and its role in the communications mix of companies. This paper won the INRA Prize awarded to the best paper devoted to the Conference Theme.

(With A.C. Gross & P.J. Shuman) "Corporate Sponsorship of Arts & Sports Events in North America, European Research, Fall, 1987. A publication of the ESOMAR conference paper (see above).

(With R.G. Javalgi, A.C. Gross, & E. Lampman) "Awareness of Corporate Sponsorship and Corporate Image: An Empirical Investigation," Journal of Advertising, December 1994. This paper looks at the effect that awareness of corporate sponsorship has on the image consumers have of a company, with managerial implications – chief among which is that it can hurt rather than help the image of certain companies.


Writing to Communicate
Have long since moved past writing to impress anyone with my brilliance; instead, I now write solely to engage the reader and communicate with a minimum of jargon or techno-babble.  Correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation are high priorities.
Visual Representation of Data
Disciple of Edward Tufte.  Can present results clearly through simple, efficient graphing in ways that are clear, succinct, and easy to understand without clutter or distraction.
Statistical Analysis
Analysis of data using techniques appropriate for the objectives.  Proficient in SPSS.  Can communicate well with managers who skipped these classes in college or were asleep during them.
Focus Group Moderating
Have moderated hundreds of focus groups, dyads, triads, and in-depth personal interviews on a variety of topics, including website development, new product concepts, effectiveness of advertising, pricing structures, and retail concepts.