In her position as the Privacy Commissioner of Ontario, Canada, Ann Cavoukian supervises the implementation of and compliance with Ontario’s privacy laws. Many of Ms. Cavoukian's job duties focus on both privacy and access issues stemming from the Personal Health Information Protection Act, the Municipal Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act, and the Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act. The privacy commissioner operates independently of the Ontario government, under a mandate to review all of the activities of any provincial governmental department that affect privacy and access to information, including those of healthcare organizations; comment on upcoming legislation regarding these issues; and educate the public. In addition, Ann Cavoukian investigates complaints against organizations on these issues. For example, in 2007, a British watchdog group filed a formal complaint against the Toronto Transit Commission’s plans to increase its video surveillance. Ann Cavoukian determined that the Transit Commission’s actions were within the law, but made 13 recommendations to alleviate privacy concerns, which the Commission put into action.Ann Cavoukian is the developer of Privacy by Design, an innovative initiative that focuses on technological privacy and security. Through Privacy by Design, Ms. Cavoukian hosts conferences and publishes guidelines on designing and building networks that protect user privacy. In 2011, Ms. Cavoukian received the Information Access and Protection of Privacy Award from the University of Alberta, the Kristian Beckman Award from the International Federation for Information Processing, and the Privacy Professional of the Year award from the SC Congress Canada. Ann Cavoukian holds membership in several professional organizations dedicated to privacy, such as the International Biometric Advisory Council.